Effects of temperature on extracellular hydrolase enzymes from soil microfungi

first_imgSoil microbes play important roles in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Soil microfungi are generally amongst the most important contributors. They produce various extracellular hydrolase enzymes that break down the complex organic molecules in the soil into simpler form. In this study, we investigated patterns of amylase and cellulase (which are responsible for breaking down starch and cellulose, respectively) relative activity (RA) on solid media at different culture temperatures in fungal strains from Arctic, Antarctic and tropical soils. Fungal isolates from all three regions were inoculated onto R2A media supplemented with starch for amylase and carboxymethylcellulose and trypan blue for cellulase screening. The isolates were then incubated at 4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C and examined for activity after 5 and 10 days, for tropical and polar isolates, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the polar fungal strains exhibited similar patterns of amylase and cellulase RA. Both Arctic and Antarctic fungi showed highest RA for amylase and cellulase at 35 °C, while colony growth was maximised at 15 °C. Colony growth and RA of the polar isolates were negatively correlated suggesting that, as temperatures increase, the cells become stressed and have fewer resources available to invest in growth. Unlike polar isolates, tropical isolates did not exhibit any trend of colony growth with temperature, rather having idiosyncratic patterns in each isolate. The low enzyme production and RA levels in the tropical strains may suggest both a low ability to respond to temperature variation in their natural thermally stable tropical habitats, as well as a level of thermal stress limiting their enzyme production ability.last_img read more

Hoosiers Win Two Titles on Final Night of Big Ten Championships

first_imgHoosiers Win Two Titles on Final Night of Big Ten Championships COLUMBUS, Ohio – The No. 9-ranked Indiana University women’s swimming and diving team ended the 2018 Women’s Big Ten Championships on a high note Saturday night at the McCorkle Aquatic Pavilion in Columbus, Ohio.The Hoosiers won two Big Ten titles on Saturday night, bringing the team’s total to five for the week. In total, the Hoosiers won 10 medals – five gold, one silver and four bronze.Indiana finished in second place at the Big Ten Championships with a total score of 1,152.5 points. Michigan won the team title with a score of 1,465, while Ohio State placed third with a total of 1,094.5. IU scored 27.5 more points than the team did last season at the Big Ten.IU has placed first or second at the Big Ten Championships in each of the last 10 years, winning the title three-straight times from 2009 to 2011. The Hoosiers have finished second the last seven seasons.Earning First-Team All-Big Ten honors for the Hoosiers were Grace Haskett, Christine JensenLilly King, Jessica Parratto, and Ali Rockett.Lilly King continued her unprecedented run in the breaststroke on Saturday night, winning the 200 breaststroke for the third-straight season with an NCAA A cut and McCorkle Aquatic Pavilion pool record time of 2:04.68. King’s time is the fourth-best mark in school history and ranks as the top-time in the nation this season.With her win on Saturday night, King becomes the first woman in Big Ten history to sweep both the 100 and 200 breast three-straight years. In three seasons, King has won 12 Big Ten titles – seven individual and five on relays.Also, in the Championship Final, Laura Morley finished eighth overall with an NCAA B cut time of 2:11.55. In the B Final, freshman Abby Kirkpatrick was sixth to place 14thoverall with a personal-best and B cut mark of 2:12.80. In the C Final, Mackenzie Atencio was third to take 19th overall with a PR and B cut of 2:13.40.In the Championship Final of the platform dive, IU’s Jessica Parratto repeated as Big Ten champion to win the third title of her career with an NCAA Zones qualifying score of 378.15. Parratto’s mark is the fourth-best in school history and included dives that earned scores of 86.40 and 81.60.Parratto had a tremendous week at the Big Ten Championships, as the redshirt junior was one of just three divers to make the Championship Final of all three events.Senior Kennedy Goss led five Hoosiers in the 200 backstroke finals, winning the bronze medal in the Championship Final with an NCAA B cut time of 1:51.66.In the B Final of the 200 back, Rachel Matsumura led a trio of Hoosiers with NCAA B cuts. The senior took third to place 11th overall with a time of 1:55.13, while Marie Chamberlain was 15th in 1:56.51. Freshman Camryn Forbes was 15th in a time of  1:57.47.In the C Final, freshman Bailey Kovac took second to finish 18th overall with a personal-best and NCAA B cut time of 1:56.73.In the 1,650 freestyle, Cassy Jernberg had a great performance, finishing fifth overall with an NCAA B cut and personal-best time of 15:54.41. Jernberg’s time is the fifth-fastest in school history and was less than a second off an NCAA A cut.In the 400 freestyle relay, the Hoosier team of Delaney Barnard, Holly Spears, Kennedy Goss and Shelby Koontz just missed the school record time by 0.01 seconds, placing fifth overall with an NCAA B cut time of 3:15.76.Shelby Koontz led three Hoosiers in the 200 butterfly, placing seventh overall in the Championship Final with an NCAA B cut time of 1:56.95.In the B Final, Reagan Cook was seventh to place 15th overall with a B cut of 1:58.66. In the C Final, junior Christine Jensen capped her great week, touching the wall first with a personal-best and NCAA B cut time of 1:57.98.Delaney Barnard led three IU swimmers in the B Final of the 100 freestyle, all of whom touched the wall with NCAA B cuts. Barnard took third to finish 11th overall with a  personal-best time of 49.23. Holly Spears was 12th overall with a time of 49.36, while Maria Paula Heitmann was 14th in 49.73.In the C Final, senior Ali Rockett tied for second to finish in a tie for 17th overall with a PR and NCAA B cut time of 49.48. Freshman Grace Haskett took 23rd overall with a time of 50.22.Over the course of the Big Ten Championships, the Hoosiers posted some impressive accolades. Indiana broke two school records, two Big Ten records, two Big Ten meet records and six McCorkle Aquatic Pavilion pool records. IU also amassed seven NCAA A cut times and had 58 personal-best marks.Be sure to keep up with all the latest news on the Indiana men’s and women’s swimming and diving teams on social media – Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.First-Team All-Big TenGrace HaskettChristine JensenLilly KingJessica ParrattoAli RockettBig Ten Sportsmanship Award HonoreeRachel Matsumura 1,650 FreestyleCassy Jernberg – 15:54.41 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)Anne Rouleau – 16:49.33 (Personal Best)Josie Grote – 16:52.43 (Personal Best) 200 BackstrokeKennedy Goss – 1:51.66 (NCAA B Cut)Rachel Matsumura – 1:55.13 (NCAA B Cut)Marie Chamberlain – 1:56.51 (NCAA B Cut)Camryn Forbes – 1:57.47 (NCAA B Cut)Bailey Kovac – 1:56.73 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)100 FreestyleDelaney Barnard – 49.23 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)Holly Spears – 49.36 (NCAA B Cut)Maria Paula Heitmann – 49.73 (NCAA B Cut)T-17. Ali Rockett – 49.48 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)Grace Haskett – 50.22200 BreaststrokeLilly King – 2:04.68 (NCAA A Cut, Pool Record)Laura Morley – 2:11.55 (NCAA B Cut)Abby Kirkpatrick – 2:12.80 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)Mackenzie Atencio – 2:13.40 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)200 ButterflyShelby Koontz – 1:56.95 (NCAA B Cut)Reagan Cook – 1:58.66 (NCAA B Cut)Christine Jensen – 1:57.98 (Personal Best, NCAA B Cut)Platform DiveJessica Parratto – 378.15 (NCAA Zones Qualifying Score)400 Freestyle RelayDelaney Barnard, Holly Spears, Kennedy Goss, Shelby Koontz – 3:15.76 (NCAA B Cut)FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more

YESTERYEAR: Shetler Moving & Storage Company

first_imgEstablished in 1899, B. J. Shetler began his young company with two teams of horses and wagons, which traveled as far as Princeton and Vincennes. The first truck was not acquired until 1916, which dates this image to probably the first decade of the twentieth century. A native of Illinois, Shetler arrived in Evansville by steamboat as a young man, working for a furniture manufacturer before opening his own business at First Avenue and Louisiana Street. When Shetler retired in 1945, he was replaced by his son, who affiliated Shetler Moving and Storage with Atlas Van Lines after he convinced the company to relocate to Evansville in the late 1950s.FOOTNOTES: We want to thank Patricia Sides, Archivist of Willard Library for contributing this picture that shall increase people’s awareness and appreciation of Evansville’s rich history. If you have any historical pictures of Vanderburgh County or Evansville please contact please contact Patricia Sides, Archivist Willard Library at 812) 425-4309, ext. 114 or e-mail her at www.willard.lib.in.us.FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more


first_imgn The 7th Bakery World Cup will be held in Paris at the Europain Show in April 2008 when teams from the United States, France and Japan will compete with bakers from other nations in Western Europe. These will be chosen in qualifying rounds, which finish in November 2007.n Greenhalgh’s Craft Bakery will celebrate opening its fifth shop in Bolton town centre by handing out 1,000 free pies on the first Friday of trading – Friday 13th October – naming it ’Friday is Pieday’. The shop will be the company’s 44th in the North West and the second to sport new corporate branding.n New Yorkers’ favourite doughnuts face a clampdown when the city becomes the first in the US to force restaurants, cafés and street stalls to keep to a limit of half a gram of trans fat in any item served from their menus. Owners have until July to switch to using healthier oils and margarines in a bid to improve Americans’ health.n Bakery ingredients firm Puratos is to construct a new sourdough plant in the US for its ready-to-use fermented sourdough line, which has only been produced in Europe until now. The New Jersey facility, which is due to open by March 2007, will produce three of the company’s four liquid Sapore sourdough products.n Confectionery company Thorntons has announced that Mike Davies has been appointed as chief executive, following the resignation Peter Burdon.n The Department for Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (East Midlands) is funding a new farm bakery in Nottingham called Spring Lane Farm.last_img read more

Consumer spending slowed in July

first_imgThe latest Barclaycard consumer confidence research has shown caution among consumers, as spending rose 2.6% in July, with growth levels down on those seen in May and June. The Barclaycard data revealed many adopted a “business as usual” approach to outgoings in the month following the Brexit vote, despite the dip in growth.Consumer spending growth slowed slightly to 2.6% in July (down from 3.6% growth in May and June), as overall confidence cooled in response to economic and political uncertainty.Nearly half (49%) of consumers said they were not confident in their ability to spend more on non-essential items, the highest figure since February. But consumer spending in restaurants and pubs remained resilient (up 12.2% and 12.8% respectively), perhaps thanks to the warmer weather, with overall entertainment spend up 10.7% year-on-year (yoy) in July.  However, overall confidence levels have dipped, and 54% of consumers expressed confidence in their household finances, significantly lower than the 71% average recorded in 2015.Paul Lockstone, managing director at Barclaycard, said: “Softer spend growth in July was perhaps to be expected given the external economic and political context. While growth did slow, some categories performed well as consumers adopted a ‘keep calm and carry on’ approach, showing that they are still prepared to spend where it matters – enjoying quality time with friends and family.”last_img read more

Saint Mary’s closes 2014-15 Justice Friday series

first_imgCaitlyn Jordan Senior Meredith Mersits and director of the Justice Education Program Adrienne Lyles-Chockley presented the final Justice Friday installment and reflected on the series as a whole.The Saint Mary’s Justice Education Program closed this year’s Justice Friday Series by reflecting and assessing progress made this year and the challenges ahead.Professor of philosophy and director of the justice education program Adrienne Lyles-Chockley led the open discussion with the help of her student assistant, Saint Mary’s senior Meredith Mersits.Lyles-Chockley and Mersits tried to focus on letting the audience carry the discussion because part of the purpose of the discussion was to gain feedback from students on how Justice Friday presentations have been and how they can be improved in the fall“I aim for the program to be student centered and focused,” Lyles-Chockley said.The overall goal of the discussion was to reflect on how progress has been made on the Saint Mary’s campus to bring awareness and advocate for different social issues. The discussion also focused on prospective ideas on social justice issues to be discussed in next year’s series of Justice Fridays.One of the initial points brought up by an audience member was that one of the major improvements that should be made overall is the presence of Justice Fridays on campus.The Justice Friday series is meant to be an opportunity for students to talk with other students and faculty about justice issues that are commonly faced in the Holy Cross community. It is an opportunity for students to voice their opinions, solve problems and initiate changes necessary to bring justice to the community, Lyles-Chockley said.However, some students suggested a greater awareness of Justice Fridays is necessary throughout the campus.Mersits said her experience with the Justice Friday series had broadened her horizons.“It’s been great to hear about issues that I didn’t even know about,” Mersits said. “It’s helped to grow my scope of the Saint Mary’s community and the world.”Many suggestions for expanding the presence on campus were mentioned such as possibly creating a forum for students, a Justice Friday series Twitter page or possibly videotaping each section of the series so that those who are not able to make the meeting can be a part of the discussion and remain up-to-date on the issues.Lyles-Chockley pointed out that the more people experience Justice Fridays, they will see the value in them, and the presence will grow.“If people see the value of Justice Fridays, it will continue to grow,” Lyles-Chockley said. “It’s a snowball effect.”Many justice issues were suggested and taken into consideration for next year as well.Students said they wanted to focus on the more controversial issues on campus that generally are ignored or bypassed by the College.Lyles-Chockley said she agreed and added the more students are willing to participate and share their view on such controversial issues in the community, the more they will be able to confront such issues themselves and as a community.“There’s a lot of value in discomfort during discussions,” Lyles-Chockley said.Lyles-Chockley said that this is why she wants to keep Justice Fridays student centered. She said students need an opportunity to come together and have discomforting discussions about social issues because it brings awareness. Once there is awareness, students are prepared and able to be advocates of justice in the community, she said.Tags: Justice Education Program, Justice Fridays wrap, saint mary’slast_img read more

Community Gardens

first_imgBy April SorrowUniversity of GeorgiaWhether their motivation is feeding their families or beefing up their wallets, more than ever Atlantans are coming together to plant community gardens, says a University of Georgia garden expert.“There has been a significant increase in interest in community gardening this year alone,” said Bobby Wilson, who coordinates the Atlanta Urban Gardening Program. “There is always an increase in the spring, usually only 60 to 75 percent of the new gardens survive. We think this year many more will survive because of food prices and because people are concerned about what is going on their food in terms of chemicals.” The program currently includes more than 225 gardens in Dekalb and Fulton counties, said Wilson, who is the UGA Cooperative Extension agent in Fulton County. But interest is growing. Attendance at a recent garden leadership meeting was double what it typically is.“We try to provide assistance,” he said. “What we are finding is a lot of people don’t know anything about what they are doing. All they know is they want to grow their own fresh vegetables.”Many gardeners in Wilson’s service area want to become certified to sell their extra produce to participants in the federal Woman, Infant and Child (WIC) Nutrition Program. Some gardening groups set up stands at local family and children services buildings to provide WIC recipients with fresh produce. They also go to farmers markets to sell their wares. Community gardening not only nourishes the body, he said, it nourishes the mind and soul, too. It gives a sense of belonging, is a source of exercise and provides a venue for social networking.“Gardening is more than growing fresh vegetables, it’s therapeutic,” he said. “We have found that a lot of people have participated not for what they do in the garden, but because they wanted to be a part of the internal structure. It makes them feel like they are a part of something important.”Food from gardens in the program helps feed 300 homeless people at the Peachtree and Pine Shelter every month. Many gardeners also donate food to the Atlanta Community Food Bank through the Plant a Row for the Hungry program. This year’s goal is 30,000 pounds.For more information, call your local UGA Extension agent at 1-800-ASK-UGA1. (April Sorrow is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)last_img read more

Over $209,000 awarded to preserve local agricultural buildings

first_imgOver $209,000 awarded to preserve local agricultural buildingsGovernor Douglas will award 23 barns $209,000 in Historic Preservation Barn grants to preserve their facilities and land. The grant program was orchestrated by the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation and offers up to $10,000 in matching funding to owners of agricultural buildings for roof, foundation, walls, and sills repairs and maintenance. Over the past 20 years the program has provided more than 200 historic agricultural buildings with $1.3 million. Some locations to receive the funding are historic Von Trapp Dairy Farm, the Grand Isle Harman Noble Barn, and Bettys Barn in Chittenden.last_img

India Scraps Import Duty on Solar Modules

first_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Reuters:India has scrapped a duty on solar modules, making it easier to import the products after a sudden change in customs policy last year led to a logjam of shipments at Indian ports.Several consignments of solar modules, worth more than $150 million in total, were held up for more than three months at ports after Indian customs’ officials in August demanded that some of them be classified as “electric motors and generators” carrying a 7.5 percent import duty. Previously they were subject to no duty.The finance ministry reversed the policy last month, stating in a notice seen by Reuters that most solar modules should revert to their original classification and that no tax should be levied on them.Indian component makers have struggled to compete with Chinese companies such as Trina Solar and Yingli and have sought anti-dumping duties as well as long-term safeguards.But the logjam of shipments at ports posed a headache for solar power producers and threatened to delay Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s plan of nearly tripling the country’s total renewable energy capacity to 175 gigawatt (GW) by 2022.The plan has spurred foreign investment in the sector, with Japan’s SoftBank and Goldman Sachs among others investing in solar projects in India.More: Relief For Indian Solar Producers As Government Reneges On Import Duty India Scraps Import Duty on Solar Moduleslast_img read more