The ‘talent war’: What is it good for? Absolutely nothing

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article The ‘talent war’: What is it good for? Absolutely nothingOn 7 Aug 2001 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Forget the old combative talk, we should now be trying to developco-operative recruiting relationshipsWinning the people wars. The battle for human capital. Fighting the braindrain. Read through any HR magazine, scan the business section of any bookshop,visit the website of any management consultancy and you are sure to find yetanother reference to what McKinsey & Co dubbed the “War for Talent”in its 1997 report of the same name. This metaphor has served a useful purpose by galvanising corporate thinkingin response to growing skills shortages. But by defining that challenge interms of conflict, it has done so at a high cost. A war suggests a clearly defined enemy. It presupposes a measurable andstable terrain with disputed but identifiable borders. It evokescommand-and-control organisations with set rules of engagement. It is based onthe logic of “either/or”, a win-lose game over finite territory. Such polarised thinking has limited relevance to a world where the oldhierarchies, organisational models and industry boundaries are giving way touncertainty, complexity, permeability and indeterminacy. Mechanisticorganisations with their clear edges and formal lines of authority are givingway to web-like organisations which draw power from the interactivity ofelements within formless operational and industry environments. This world is competitive. But it is characterised by collaboration betweenorganisations concerned to ensure their prosperous survival in the face ofchange. Hull’s social services department, for example, has developed apartnership with local universities, colleges and the voluntary sector tocreate and sustain a pool of social workers that can take up posts when theybecome vacant. This has prevented time-to-fill delays of up to six months. Co-operative recruiting relationships, as management thinker Peter Cappellisays in his book New Deal at Work, have been around since the 1950s whencompanies in the US aircraft industry “lent” entire teams tocompetitors which won government contracts. This allowed the lending company toavoid layoffs and gave it a stake in the development of its people. Morerecently, AT&T launched the Talent Alliance of about 30 organisations whichmarket talented individuals to other alliance members rather than lay them off.All of which runs counter to the logic of the war metaphor – a linguisticconstruct that blinds us to the web of relationships that links competitors,suppliers, candidates and the broader employment market. This can result inrecruitment tactics that serve little long-term purpose. Take the MetropolitanPolice, which is poaching officers from regional forces by offering additionalbenefits worth £6,000 – but weakening the wider policing framework. And that is the problem with the war mentality: it creates turf disputes,encourages short-term- ism and promotes corporate raiding. Recruitment problem?Don’t worry – just steal nurses from Malaysia, programmers from India, teachersfrom Australia. Move beyond the war metaphor and in place of aggressive short-term tactics,we can build relationships with prospective candidates using the Internet andtraditional media. We can invest in the schools, colleges and universities thatwill provide talent. We can open up fertile recruitment fields inhabited by olderworkers, the retired, asylum seekers and others. Make no mistake: there is a real recruitment crisis and competition willcontinue to shape the landscape. But so will co-operation, collaboration,partnership and the impact of evolving business models driven by globalisationand technologies. Organisations trapped in the war metaphor simply mistake asmall segment of the strategic whole as the entire strategic landscape. The persistence of the metaphor points to the failure of organisations tograsp the changes. And until they respond to these changes they will continueto pursue flawed recruitment and retention strategies. It is time to change the metaphor. By Shaun D’Arcy a partner at Lighthouse Communications, a full-servicerecruitment advertising and communications last_img read more

…in brief

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article This week’s news in briefWriter wins award Personnel Today writer Nic Paton won the Magazine Writer of the Year Awardfrom The Work Foundation. The judges said of his work for HR: The Naked Truth:”The winner submitted a piece that was illuminating, comprehensive andvery well written. It offered a hard-hitting exploration of the failings of HR– taking HR on in their own territory.”  www.theworkfoundation.comWin a hotel break You could win a luxury weekend break to a UK Marriott hotel by filling inthe Recruitment Confidence Index questionnaire. The RCI is a quarterly surveywhich tracks predicted trends in recruitment confidence and associatedemployment areas. All respondents will receive a copy of the report. first for banks Leading City banks are to host the first ever lesbian, gay, bisexual andtransgendered (LGBT) inter-bank careers event tomorrow (Wednesday). Called OUTin the City, the reception is sponsored by Citigroup, Credit Suisse FirstBoston, Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan, Lehman Brothers, Morgan Stanleyand UBS. Comments are closed. …in briefOn 18 Nov 2003 in Personnel Todaylast_img read more

Holy days fall within Freshers’ week

first_imgFor the first time in 33 years, the Islamic festival Ramadan is falling during Freshers’ week. Muslim Freshers will have to balance abstaining from all food and drink during daylight hours whilst participating in their introduction to Oxford student life.The festival lasts for one month and is traditionally centred around the family meal at sunset and tarawih prayers later at night with the community.Asma Nizami, a second year at Wadham, found fasting during her first term at University “really tiring and especially difficult,” saying she was “in an entirely new situation, trying to meet new people and make essay deadlines whilst balancing the demands of Ramadan.”Graduate Fresher, Samir Ahmed, is worried about missing the induction lunches around which the graduate Freshers’ Week is centred. “It’s going to be hard because you have to miss all the initial interaction with people you are tring to meet.”College welfare reps have been briefed by OUSU about the situation and are adjusting plans to make them more sensitive to the needs of any fasting students. OUSU VP (Welfare and Equal Opportunities), Aidan Randle-Conde told Cherwell “Ramadan can be one of the most important times of the year for Muslim students, even more so this year as the first day falls in Freshers’ Week.”Ed Mason, JCR president of Trinity, insists that “Trinity JCR always provides alternatives to traditional Freshers’ Week events. Also, we have information on how we can best provide Kosher or Halal meals at appropriate times.”Colleges have become increasingly sensitive to the needs of freshers over the last few years. This has been demonstrated in a concerted effort around Oxford to prove non-alcohol related freshers events to include students who don’t drink.Freshers’ Week has also coincided with the Jewish New Year, Rosh Hashanah, which is celebrated on Tuesday and Wednesday of 0th week. On Rosh Hashanah it is customary for families to gather together for the holiday meal, something this year’s Jewish Freshers will have to either forego or choose to remain at home for.Coming up to Oxford during a Jewish holy day last year, Andrew Freedman of Exeter College described Freshers’ Week as “more strange” and found himself “quite disorientated.”The president of the Oxford Islamic Society Hassan Malik says, “The ISOC provides services catered to the specific needs of Muslim students; in particular during the testing month of Ramadan.” Free meals are provided at the end of every fasting weekday for fasting Muslims and nightly prayers are held at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.ARCHIVE: 0th week MT 2005last_img read more

Tesco latest: three more execs suspended after profit error

first_imgTesco has asked three more executives to leave the company, in its latest move since its £250m profit overstatement. The supermarket giant has now suspended a total of eight executives in the fall-out since the blunder.In a statement, Tesco said: “We have asked three employees to step aside to facilitate the investigation into the potential overstatement of profits in UK food.“We will provide an update on the investigation with our interim results on 23 October.”The three category directors asked to step aside are reportedly William Linnane of impulse, Dan Jago of wines and spirits, and Sean McCurley of convenience.Tesco is currently under investigation from the Financial Conduct Authority over the guidance error.An internal investigation is also being carried out by the accountancy firm Deloitte and law firm Freshfields.This week, chief executive Dave Lewis refreshed his board with the appointment of Compass boss Richard Cousins and former Ikea boss Mikael Ohlsson as non-executive directors.It is not yet clear how Tesco came to overstate its profits by such a hefty sum.last_img read more

New director for SDEA

first_imgThe Shop and Display Equipment Association (SDEA) has a new director in Antony Behiels, after Lawrence Cutler stepped down. Cutler has stepped down after 40 years as director of SDEA. Behiels was previously an SDEA member and was on the executive council for seven years.Cutler has been instrumental in negotiating numerous successful partnerships for members during his tenure.He said: “I have thoroughly enjoyed my time guiding the association through the successes as well as the challenges we’ve faced in the last 40 years.“I am delighted that Antony Behiels has agreed to take over from me as director of SDEA. His youthful enthusiasm and intimate knowledge of our industry will make him a vital asset for the association’s future development.”Last month the SDEA elected a new president and vice president at its AGM.last_img read more

Born and Bread: Warburtons, Bolton

first_imgEach month we profile a family business and look at how the baking craft has passed down through the generations. This month, how Warburtons grew from a single shop to a £500m-a-year business.Thomas Warburton and his wife, Ellen, opened a grocery shop in Bolton in 1870, with the help of Thomas’ brother, George. In 1876 the market slumped, so to make ends meet Ellen started baking bread – her first batch of four loaves of bread and six cakes sold out in under an hour and within two weeks the tiny shop was renamed Warburtons the Bakers.In 1890 the business had grown so much that Thomas had to invest in a pony to transport the bread and asked his nephew, Henry, to join the business. Seven years later Henry bought two more premises, one of which his wife Rachel ran single-handedly while also bringing up four children. By 1913 there were 24 staff and six delivery vehicles.After serving in the First World War, Henry’s sons Billy and Harry joined the company in 1921, the same year that Warburtons invested in its first semi-automatic wrapping machine.During the Second World War, Warburtons estimates it delivered around 1,300 loaves of bread an hour. In the face of petrol rationing, electric vehicles were used to deliver it.Warburtons remains a private, family-owned business, today and is managed by the fifth generation of Warburtons – Jonathan (who appears in the business’s Muppet-themed TV ads), Ross and Brett. Between them they assumed control of the business in 1991, following the retirement of their fathers. It is now the largest family-owned bakery business in the country and employs around 4,500 people in 12 bakeries and 14 depots across the UK.In 2005 the company opened a state-of-the-art bakery in Tuscany Park, Yorkshire. This was the first bakery in the world to have a computerised production line installed, and the company says it remains one of the most technologically advanced bakeries in existence.Four years later, Warburtons opened a ‘super bakery’ in Bristol that can produce more than 1.5 million products a week. And in 2011 it opened a dedicated gluten-free plant at Newburn, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In the same year a wraps and thins plant was introduced to the Bristol bakery and a new crumpet plant opened at the Enfield bakery in London. In 2012 it opened a new bakery in Bolton, which it says is “the most modern bakery in Europe”.The original site on 126 Blackburn Road, Bolton, is still owned by the company and isn’t far from its head office.“Since Warburtons was founded in 1876, family values have been at the heart of our business and remain at the core of everything we do,” Jonathan Warburton tells British Baker. “They are what makes our business unique, and are why everyone working here feels a part of the Warburtons family. This is incredibly important to me, Brett and Ross, we are the fifth generation of Warburtons to run the business and are very proud to be fulfilling the legacy left by our ancestors.He add that he believes it is essential for the business to have a long-term focus: “Everyday teamwork coupled with a driving ambition, great people working for us and a focus on our individual strengths to enable us to work together as shareholders to steer the business in the right directions.“Key to our success over five generations of Warburtons is our continued commitment to baking the best quality products for families across Britain. We believe this focus has helped to drive our continued growth in a challenging marketplace.”Warburtons has doubled in size in the past decade alone to become a £500m-a-year business that more than a quarter of all the bakery products consumed in the UK…. Timeline1876 – Thomas and Ellen Warburton found the bakery1890 – Thomas Warburton buys his first delivery pony and his nephew, Henry, joins the business1921 – Henry’s sons Billy and Harry join the company after returning from the war1936 – Billy, Harry and their brother George take over the business1966 – Fourth-generation Warburtons George and Derrick assume command1991 – Brett, Jonathan and Ross take the helmlast_img read more

Revisiting Yes’s Masterpiece Album, “Close To The Edge”

first_imgYes, along with Pink Floyd, were the founding fathers of progressive rock, a musical genre that still flourishes today. Both bands were on my turntable daily during the 1970s and were revered by my generation. Imitation being the sincerest form of flattery… Yes had many who followed in their footsteps (ie. Gentle Giant, Starcastle, Genesis, King Crimson). All the imitators were good, if a tad pretentious, and none hold up as well as Yes. In the end, Yes just wrote better songs.The Yes catalog is extensive and holds up very well. The Yes Album, Fragile, Tales from Topographic Ocean, 90125, Relayer are a few worth noting. However, their best album is Close to the Edge. It is a tour de force that any jam or Prog Rock fan would embrace today. One of true marks of greatness is originality. While 99% of music is derivative, Yes crafted their own unique sound. Not that being derivative it’s a bad thing (Zeppelin and the Stones have a foundation based on the Chicago Blues sound). Yes consisted of very talented musicians. Jon Anderson with his distinctive soprano voice on lead vocals, Steve Howe on guitar, Rick Wakeman on keyboard, Bill Bruford on drums and the recently departed Chris Squire on bass.In 1972, Yes was flying high. Coming off a critically acclaimed album Fragile with their monster hits “Roundabout” and “Starship Trooper”, Yes was poised to take it to the next level. They discovered that the fans really enjoyed the longer song formats. Jam fans today are used to songs over 10 minutes in length, but in the early 1970s most songs were under 4 minutes. 40 years ago, radio stations ruled the popular music industry. They dictated what was played and even the length of the songs. Radio stations insisted that songs be kept short so more songs could be played in an hour and more commercials could be inserted. In 1968, the Beatles purposely made the song “Hey Jude” over 7 minutes just to aggravate the radio stations.Yes recognized that the longer song format gave them the opportunity to explore various musical themes. An “AHA” moment for sure that brought the classical music discipline to modern rock music. Yes was no doubt miffed when asked to make a radio version of the song “Roundabout”. At a little more than 3 minutes, the “commercial” version of ”Roundabout” is a weak substitution for the magnificent 8 minute album version. Eschewing the attention that bands received on AM radio, Yes took a decidedly less commercial approach and would never again succumb to outside ‘non-music’ interests.When Yes went into the studio in 1972 to make a statement. The result was Close to the Edge. It only contained 3 songs: “And You and I”, “Siberian Khatru” both around nine minutes. But the title track “Close to the Edge” is a 4 part symphony that is a broad canvas of intricate instrumental exchanges highlighted by Anderson’s sublime and poetic vocals. His voice in a near soprano range, was the perfect fit for the band.From the Yes website, Jon Anderson: “It’s very representative of what I think is the Yes style. We experimented a lot, but we also had the talent to back it up – it wasn’t just solo after solo. We told stories and created moods. It was all very daring and wonderful.”When the album was released in September 1972 it bested Fragile on the charts reaching #3 in the US and #4 in the UK. Timing in life is everything and in 1972, FM radio came into its own as well as college stations. Yes got the airplay on the less traditional venues and their success and fame really took off.A further exploration of the title track Close to the Edge shows real innovation. It is split into four movements:The Solid Time Of ChangeTotal Mass RetainI Get Up, I Get DownSeasons of ManFrom the band’s website are some more fascinating revelations from their front man. From the 1st movement, The Solid Change of Time, Anderson offers the following insight:“I had been listening to an album called Sonic Seasoning by Walter Carlos, who’s now Wendy Carlos (inventor of the Moog Synthesizer), and it gave me the idea for this sound effect that came from outer space. It came towards you and then bang! – the band started charging. At first, there’s this wonderful musical chaos, and then we have the guitar riff.“The idea of the chant was key to the song. [Sings] ‘A seasoned witch could call you from the depths of your disgrace/ And rearrange-da-dada-dada-dada-da-da-daa.’ It’s a rhythmic thing. I worked that out with Steve.“The band started playing, and I said, ‘Guys, maybe you should be doing something more syncopated instead of a straight-on beat.’ So while Bill and Chris worked on a drum and bass thing, I looked at Rick and said, ‘OK, how fast can you play?’ And, of course, he could play very fast. The whole idea was to make it musically entertaining even before we put the voices on.“For lyrics, I did a rough sketch of the whole piece, but as the sections came together, that’s when I rewrote the words. It took about three or four revisions till everything was there. It’s all metaphors. Simply put, ‘A seasoned witch could call you from the depths of your disgrace’ – that means your higher self will eventually bring you out of your dark world.”The effect is overwhelming and you are confronted with a solid wall of sound. The journey begins.On the 2nd movement, Total Mass Retain, Anderson offers the following:“We’ve laid the foundation of where we’re going to go, and now we’re into the second part. This is about the relaxation of life and being close to the edge of the realization of our universal experiences. That’s what the song is starting to explain.“This part flows. It shows you that you have to let music guide you. It’s best to open up and not force the situation. Everything will come to you.From the 3rd movement, I Get Up, I Get Down. The band slows down the musical pace and we get really splendid vocals. Anderson again:“We have the ‘the I get up, I get down’ part before it goes into a beautiful ocean of energy. You’ve gone through nearly 10 minutes of music that’s very well put-together, but then you want to let go of it. You relax a little bit.“The song came about because Steve was playing these chords one day, and I started singing, ‘Two million people barely satisfy.’ It’s about the incredible imbalance of the human experience on the planet.“The vocals came together nicely. I’m a big fan of The Beach Boys and The Association – such great voices. Steve and I were working on this, and at one point he said, ‘I have this other song…’ And I said, ‘Well, start singing it.’ And he went [sings], ‘In her white lace, you could clearly see the lady sadly looking/ saying that she’d take the blame for the crucifixion of her own domain… ’“When I heard that, I said, ‘Wait. That’s going to be perfect! You start singing that with Chris, and then I’ll sing my part.’ We have an answer-back thing.In the end, the title track is a stunning musical composition worthy of the same scrutiny as a Beethoven symphony. However, not to be overlooked are the 2 songs from side 2 of the album“And You and I” starts with Steve Howe’s splendid 12 string work. Then it moves to Wakeman’s soaring work on the Moog and Mellotron. Not to be overlooked are the splendid harmonies led by Jon Anderson backed by Chris Squire’s vocals. The lyrics are just a trippy as the music.“…Oh, coins and crosses never know their fruitless worth Cords are broken locked inside the mother earth They won’t hide, they won’t tell you Watching the world, watching all of the world Watching us go by And you and I climb over the sea to the valley And you and I reached out for reasons to call…”Like “Close to the Edge”, “And You and I” is broken into 4 parts…a mini-symphony so to speak.Chord of LifeEclipseThe Preacher, The TeacherApocalypse.The 3rd and final track “Siberian Khatru”, featuring trippy lyrics, complex time signatures and complex rhythms, is divided into multiple sections, with alternating vocal and instrumental passages. The song progresses in various solos by Howe and Wakeman. Lyrics are truly non-sensical, which is part of its overall charm.In the end, Close to the Edge remains one of the top albums from the 1970’s. It is still fresh and original and its overall allure remains as enticing as the day it was released. I implore you to listen and promise you will be captivated and enthralled.last_img read more

Folk Icon Joan Baez Announces Final North American Tour

first_imgIt’s been nearly six decades since Joan Baez began her professional music career with a set at the 1959 Newport Folk Festival. It’s been 55 years since she performed at the historic March On Washington, and it’s been more than 50 years since her fearlessly anti-war message made her a bonafide icon of the ’60s counterculture. Joan Baez has been performing for a long time, but her on-stage career will come to an end when she retires from “formal touring” later this year.Before she makes her exit from the live arena, Baez will hit the road for an extensive run of tour dates from mid-September through mid-November. The singer-songwriter announced her final North American outing today, and the itinerary includes 28 shows across much of the United States and Canada. Among those dates are two-night runs at Boston’s Wang Theatre and New York City’s Beacon Theatre in September, as well as five stops in California in late October and early November. Tickets for Baez’s final tour will go on sale Friday, March 2nd.While Baez is gearing up to retire from the road, her recording career is experiencing something of a revival. For her upcoming dates, Baez will be performing in support of her first album in 10 years, Whistle Down The Wind, which is due out on March 2nd. The forthcoming LP features a number of covers and tunes that other illustrious songwriters—such as Tom Waits, Mary Chapin Carpenter, and Josh Ritter—wrote for her. According to Rolling Stone, Whistle Down The Wind was produced by Joe Henry (Bonnie Raitt, Allen Toussaint) during a series of sessions at United Recording Studios in Los Angeles.“Whistle Down The Wind” (written by Tom Waits in 1992)“I’ve left [the idea of recording more albums] more open than the touring because you just can’t … you never know,” Baez told Rolling Stone. “Maybe you’ll say, ‘Oh, my God,’ and you’ll want to do an album in other languages or some special project. But I doubt that I’ll do this process again of finding songs and doing a whole album.”Joan Baez 2018 North American Tour:September 11 Ithaca, New York – State TheatreSeptember 12 New Haven, Connecticut – Shubert TheaterSeptember 14 Boston, MA – The Wang TheatreSeptember 15 Boston, MA – The Wang TheatreSeptember 17 Montreal, QC – Place Des Arts Maison SymphoniqueSeptember 18 Toronto, ON – Roy Thomson HallSeptember 21 New York, NY – Beacon TheatreSeptember  22 New York, NY – Beacon TheatreSeptember 25 Red Bank, NJ – Count Basie TheatreSeptember 26 Philadelphia, PA – Verizon Hall @ Kimmel CenterSeptember 28 Washington, DC – Warner TheatreSeptember 29 Durham, NC – Durham Performing Arts CenterSeptember 30 Nashville, TN – Ryman AuditoriumOctober 2 Ann Arbor, MI – Michigan TheaterOctober 3 Cleveland, OH – State TheatreOctober 5 Chicago, IL – Chicago TheatreOctober 6 Minneapolis, MN – State TheatreOctober 24 Denver, CO – Paramount TheatreOctober 25 Santa Fe, NM – The Lensic Performing Arts CenterOctober 27 Phoenix, AZ – Celebrity TheatreOctober 28 Tucson, AZ – Fox Tucson TheatreOctober 30 San Diego, CA – Humphreys ConcertsNovember 4 Seattle, WA – Benaroya HallNovember 5 Portland, OR – Revolution HallNovember 8 Eureka, CA – Arkely Center for the Performing ArtsNovember 10 Los Angeles, CA – Royce HallNovember 15 San Francisco, CA – The MasonicNovember 17 Oakland, CA – Fox Theater Oaklandlast_img read more

Ten professors named Cabot Fellows

first_imgTen professors in Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS) have been named Walter Channing Cabot Fellows. The 2011 honorees were awarded for their distinguished publications.The 2011 honorees:Henry Louis Gates Jr., Alphonse Fletcher University Professor, “Faces of America: How 12 Extraordinary Americans Reclaimed Their Pasts” and “Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora”Stephen Greenblatt, Cogan University Professor, “Shakespeare’s Freedom” and “Cultural Mobility: A Manifesto”James Simpson, Donald P. and Katherine B. Loker Professor of English, “Under the Hammer: Iconoclasm in the Anglo-American Tradition”Martin Puchner, professor of English and of comparative literature, “The Drama of Ideas: Platonic Provocations in Theater and Philosophy”Stephen Mitchell, professor of Scandinavian and folklore, “Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages”James Kloppenberg, Charles Warren Professor of American History, “Reading Obama: Dreams, Hope, and the American Political Tradition”Daniel Carpenter, Allie S. Freed Professor of Government, “Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA”Ann Blair, Henry Charles Lea Professor of History, “Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information Before the Modern Age”Martin Whyte, professor of sociology, “Myth of the Social Volcano: Perceptions of Inequality and Distributive Injustice in Contemporary China”Hue-Tam Ho Tai, Kenneth T. Young Professor of Sino-Vietnamese History, “Passion, Betrayal, and Revolution in Colonial Saigon: The Memoirs of Bao Luong”last_img read more

Professor affirms effects of Indian mascots

first_imgStephanie Fryberg, a visiting professor of psychology at the University of Washington, presented her research Tuesday on the psychological effects of American Indian sports mascots, which affirmed these types of social representations depress the self-esteem of American Indian students.Kelly Konya | The Observer [/Keri O’Mara]Fryberg’s lecture, titled “From Stereotyping to Invisibility: The Psychological Consequences of Using American Indian Mascots,” highlighted several studies she and her colleagues have performed.In the studies, Fryberg asked questions to American Indian high school and college students based on several popular representations of Native Americans, including Disney’s Pocahontas and Chief Wahoo, the mascot of the Cleveland Indians.Fryberg said the research did not begin with an examination of mascots, but the final product did reflect this focus.“The first two studies, the question we asked was what is the impact of American Indian social representations on the self-esteem and community efficacy of American Indians,” she said. “You notice, the question was not what is the effect of American Indian mascots, though that is how this work has commonly been used and by the time we got to the third or fourth study, it is how we then framed the research paper because it became much more central to the social issue.”After a close study of media portrayals of American Indians, Fryberg said representations were rare and largely negative in connotation.“In a content analysis of national newspapers in 1997 and major films from 1999 to 2000, relatively few, 0.2 percent, of representations of American Indians were found,” she said. “The representations that were there were largely stereotypic and negative, and American Indians were seldom presented as contemporary people or in contemporary domains.”To Fryberg and her colleagues’ surprise, she said the study showed a greater likelihood of American Indians to approve of Native American mascots.“Surprisingly for us, we found that those who agree with the use of Indians as mascots actually have less community worth,” Fryberg said. “And this was particularly interesting to us because you’d like to think that if you agree with it, you must think it’s good, but actually following the psychology literature, it turns out that when you disagree with the stereotype, there are psychological resources that buffer you from the effects of that image.”Fryberg said she and her team altered the study when they brought it to Haskell Indian Nations University.“Going forward, we started to show this data and one of the issues that came up as we were showing the data is that Chief Wahoo is a caricature, and so maybe it would be different if we used a mascot that wasn’t a caricature,” she said. “And so for the last study, we were able to ask a number of questions because we went to the only four-year university that is a predominantly American Indian university, and it turns out they have an Indian mascot.”All of the studies, though, concluded that essentially any American Indian mascot representations harmed the self-esteem of American Indian students, Fryberg said.“Consistent with the past two studies, it turns out that being exposed to any one of these mascots decreased achievement-related possible selves,” she said. “So what it means is if they saw the Indian mascot, then any possible selves they had related to achievement in school were depressed.”Tags: american indian, cleveland indians, psychological consequences of american indian mascots, sports mascots, stephanie fryberglast_img read more